To clarify some doubts that may arise on this sector and its possibilities, we provide the following list of questions extracted from the official website of AESA (Spanish Aviation Safety Agency)
Currently you can use drones to conduct aerial work as:
Although at first, and even that is not approved the final regulation, the operations that can be performed limited to unpopulated areas and uncontrolled airspace.
The new legislation allows for an aircraft of up to 25 Kg, recording outdoors, but must be done during the day and in visual meteorological conditions in areas outside congested areas of cities, towns or settlements in uncontrolled airspace within the visual range of the driver at a distance therefrom not greater than 500 m. and a height above the ground not more than 400 feet (ie, at most 120 m. on the ground).
To achieve qualification as operator of drones to perform this type of work is the regime established you do not need a permit or authorization, just a prior communication and responsible statement presented in the Registry EASA, including a responsible statement along with the required documentation, which will enable acknowledgment as operator of drones.
In any case, to be enabled as an operator of drones is necessary to remember that for taking photographs or filming with any type of aircraft, manned or not, it is necessary to obtain specific authorization from EASA for such activity under an Order Presidency of March 14, 1957.
All drone pilots, regardless of the size of the aircraft, must prove a number of requirements:
First, prove that they possess the necessary theoretical knowledge to obtain a pilot's license, which can be done in three ways:
Moreover, if they did not had a pilot's license they must prove that they have more than 18 years
Secondly, they must submit a medical certificate Class LAPL (for aircraft up to 25 kg) or Class 2 (for over 25 kg). Since the governing rule for the LAPL certificate is not effective until 2015, until then only certificate Class 2 is available.
They should finally prove that they have adequate knowledge of the aircraft that will drive and his piloting, through a document may be issued by the operator, the aircraft manufacturer or an organization authorized by it or by a approved training organization.
Regardless of the size of the aircraft manned by remote control, all the drones operators must meet the following requirements:
However, aircraft operators up to 25 kilos maximum takeoff weight, will not need to apply for authorization to operate, presenting in EFSA prior communication and responsible statement as the aircraft meets all these requirements, together with accrediting documentation.
Such prior communication and responsible statement be submitted to EFSA with at least 5 days before the scheduled start of the operation. EFSA provide the owner a receipt that will serve to demonstrate to third parties that the applicant is legally qualified to undertake such activity.
Any modification shall also be notified to EFSA with a minimum of five days, presenting the original documentation with a declaration of responsibility to cover the modifications.
Aircraft operators over 25 kg must submit the same documentation together with a declaration of responsibility, but are subject to EASA issued its authorization (once you have checked the documentation and have found compliant) to start the activity. p>
All drones, without exception, must carry fixed in its structure an identification plate on which shall state, legibly and at first sight, the aircraft identification, by specific designation, serial number if applicable, operating company name and contact details with it.
In addition, UAVs weighing over 25kg take-off must be listed on the Register of Aircraft Registration and have EASA airworthiness certificate. Those who weigh less will not have to meet these two requirements.
The drones with weighing up to 25 kilos at takeoff, in addition to meeting the conditions established for the operator (company) described in Question 6 must meet the conditions common to all the drones:
In the event that the drone is less than 2 kilos takeoff, they can also fly beyond visual range of the pilot, but must do so within the scope of the radio emission of the control station, and they can only reach a maximum height of 400 feet (120 m). But to do so they must ask Aeronautical Information Services issuing a NOTAM, which is a warning to other airspace users where and when you are flying, before any operation.
In paragraph 5 of Article 50 of Law 18/2014, under c) 1 and 2 specified that whoever may issue a "basic certificate" or "advanced certificate" for the theoretical knowledge to pilot aircraft piloted by Control Remote will be "a training organization approved in accordance with Annex VII of Regulation (EU) n.º1178 / 2011 of the Commission of 3 November 2011 laying down technical requirements and administrative procedures relating to staff flight of civil aviation. "
Therefore, for seeking to impart training to be recognized, they must obtain the approval of EASA training organization (ATO stands for "approved training organization") in accordance with the Regulation of the European Commission.
Applications for approval as the ATO handles the Personnel Licensing Division of the Directorate of Flight Safety Aircraft EASA. Relevant information can be found at: ATO approval procedure.
To request approval it must teach at least one course in relation to one of the licenses referred to in the aforementioned European Regulation (any of them, including glider pilot or balloon) is not acceptable to provide only demand training on aircraft piloted by remote control, as they are not covered by it.
Therefore, only training organizations (ATOs) approved by the State Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) can deliver the courses to obtain basic and advanced piloting RPAs certificates. Any ATO approved by EFSA can issue a "basic certificate" or "advanced certificate" for the piloting of civil aircraft piloted by remote control.
It has to teach the subjects listed in paragraph 5, points c.2º c.1º and Article 50 of Law 18/2014, with the contents specified in Section 1.2.A Appendix I to the Resolution of 07.07.14 EASA Director for the guidance material and acceptable means of compliance for this rule is approved.
In addition, it must be take into account the minimum duration indicated in section 1.5 of this Appendix I, and inform EFSA programs each subject as indicated in 1.3.
Courses are taught by instructors appropriate, according to Paragraph 3, and sent to EFSA a dossier with the documentation listed in Section 4.2 before starting the activity.
In order to issue the certificate it has to impart the subjects listed in the standard (aviation regulations, aircraft general knowledge (generic and specific), Aircraft Performance, Meteorology, Navigation and interpreting maps, operational procedures, communications and Factors human to civil aircraft piloted by remote control), with the content and minimum duration specified in the acceptable means of compliance for that published on the website of EASA standard.
There will also be communicated to EFSA programs each subject as indicated in point. Courses are taught by instructors appropriate, and sent to EFSA a dossier with information on facilities that will develop the course program developed corresponding knowledge, course development schedule and instructors (with CV) before starting activity (for further information and monitoring purposes, EASA issued no formal authorization to teach the courses, only acknowledge receipt of the documentation).
At will of the operator. Normally (except an operator who is to spend only a very specific type of operation) agree to do one type of operation, with the most generic possible features, because otherwise would have to submit a new one, as initially modification documentation presented, when it will perform an operation that does not fit into the already submitted.
Yes, to perform aerial work, test flights and special flights by drone requires insurance liability to third parties for each device. In addition, the limit of insurance coverage depends on the maximum take-off mass of apparatus and the insurance company must be authorized by the Directorate General of Insurance in the field of air vehicles liability. In fact, operators must present with the responsible declaration a certificate issued by the insurance company in which it is expressly stated that the insurer is authorized and which meets the requirements for each of the aircraft and declared activities by the operator.
To carry out aerial activities of technical or scientific papers and special flights by civil aircraft piloted by remote control, defined respectively in the art. 50.3 and 50.4 of Law 18/2014, an insurance policy or other financial security for civil liability to third parties for damages that may arise during and because of the execution of the flight are required.
The Air Navigation Act (art. 11b) considers any aircraft piloted by remote control that could support in the atmosphere from reactions of the air other than the reactions of the same against the surface of the earth machine, and as such must be ensured.
Every civil aircraft piloted by remote control must be ensured, so that insurance must be associated with an enrollment or if lower 25 Kg MTOM a make, model and serial number. Moreover, having a specific scope must insure the risks of each of the activities to be undertaken.
In the case of several remotely piloted aircraft, each of which must be secured, either on the same policy (together policy) or in different policies.
The coverage limits on the maximum take-off mass. The RD 37/2001 of 19 January establishes the minimum limits of liability insurance to third parties in case of civil aircraft piloted by remote control less than 20 kg MTOM and Regulation (EC) No 785/2004 of the European Parliament and the Council of 21 April 2004 on insurance requirements for air carriers and aircraft to greater than 20 kg MTOM operators.
Insurance companies must have an administrative authorization granted by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness in respect of the class to which they will engage and be entered in the register of the Directorate General of Insurance in that class.
To demonstrate compliance with the applicable regulations, operators must present with the responsible declaration a certificate issued by the insurance company in which expressly stated that the insurer is authorized by the Directorate General of Insurance in the field of liability aerial vehicles and which meets the requirements of art. 50.3 d 7 of Law 18/2014 of 19 October, for each aircraft and activities declared by the operator.